Cichlids are one of the most successful and diverse family of fishes (eclipsed only by Gobies and Cyprinids) with roughly 112 genera, and at least 1,350 species. In Africa, there are at least 900 species alone, with concentrations in the three African lakes that contain more species of fishes than any other lake in the world! Their diversity is mind-blowing.
Some are mouth-brooders, others lay eggs and defend nests, and others combine both methods of reproduction. While primarily a freshwater fish of the tropics, some live in brackish waters.
Because they are small, easy to capture, observe, and test, they have been the subject of much research.
Here now, a superb presentation given by Axel Myer: